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Bribes & backhanders fuel deadly corruption but pharma is not the only player

Written by Guest on Monday, 8 September 2014

With a worth of US$6.5 trillion, the global corruption-resources-corruption-resources-healthcare industry is especially vulnerable to corruption. Although the problem is particularly acute in countries where corruption is endemic, no country is immune.


 Carwyn Hooper is a Senior Lecturer in Medical Ethics and Law at St George’s University of London. This article was originally published on theconversation.com 

 

GlakoSmithKline (GSK) is currently feeling the heat from the allegations of foreign corruption that have erupted in China Poland Syria Iraq Jordan and Lebanon and the company is scrambling to restore its corporate reputation. Many other pharmaceutical companies have also been accused of corruption in recent times. Pfizer Eli Lilly and Johnson & Johnson have all settled foreign bribery cases in the last three years.

The pharmaceutical industry is trying to deal with corruption and credit should be (cautiously) given where it is due. However claims that rottenness is limited to a few bad apples is increasingly hard to sustain and it is important not to get hoodwinked by slick PR campaigns.

No immune system

You might think from the intense media coverage of pharma scandals that corruption in corruption-resources-corruption-resources-healthcare is primarily limited to these companies. Sadly however, there is evidence aplenty that corruption pervades every aspect of corruption-resources-corruption-resources-healthcare. With a worth of US$6.5 trillion the global corruption-resources-corruption-resources-healthcare industry is especially vulnerable. And although the problem is particularly acute in countries where corruption is endemic no country is immune.

One of the most common forms of corruption involves informal payments to corruption-resources-corruption-resources-healthcare professionals. In Azerbaijan for example, these “under-the-table” payments could account for as much as 84% of total corruption-resources-corruption-resources-health expenditure in the country. Even mortuary staff get in on the action. Kickbacks to doctors are also a common source of corruption in some countries. In India for example, hospital administrators regularly give money to physicians to encourage patient referrals. Absenteeism is also very common. There are of course, many legitimate reasons why people absent themselves from work. Sometimes work itself is the cause. However corruption seeps in when physicians fail to turn up to work because they are busy boosting their salaries in the private sector.

Politicians regulators, and even patients can also become mired in the moral quagmire. Fraud may add as much as 10% to the Medicare and Medicaid bill in the United States and some donor countries have suspended financial support to the Global Fund because so much money was being misused by bureaucrats. NGOs who might deliver corruption-resources-corruption-resources-health also aren’t immune.

Corruption kills

In a very broad sense corruption matters because it causes markets to be inefficient erodes trust and undermines the very fabric of society. But corruption in corruption-resources-corruption-resources-healthcare is especially problematic because it exacerbates inequities decimates the relationship between professionals and patients and violates the right to life. It achieves much of this grim harvest by reducing the total amount of corruption-resources-corruption-resources-healthcare resources that are available and by skewing the allocation of the resources that remain.

It also causes a lot of harm because it disproportionately affects women, children and the poor – which incidentally, partly explains why the Millennium Development Goals will not be achieved by 2015.

Bluntly put corruption matters because corruption kills and because it has a special penchant for killing the most vulnerable.

Slow off the mark

It has taken quite a while for politicians and policy makers to wake up to the scale and severity of the problem. Bioethicists like me have also been very slow off the mark. Fortunately things have begun to get better. Transparency International published a landmark report on corruption and corruption-resources-corruption-resources-health in 2006 and in the last few years the United Nations the European Commission and many other regional and international organisations have started to pay serious attention to the problem.

Many countries including the UK and Italy have also recently enacted anti-corruption legislation, and the US has even introduced legislation that specifically deals with corruption in the corruption-resources-corruption-resources-healthcare sector.

These improvements should not make us complacent for there is still much work to be done. Governments need to make sure that they enforce anti-corruption laws; doctors need to publicly pledge to clean up their profession; pharmaceutical companies need to redouble their efforts to systematically eradicate all their “bad apples”; universities need to forewarn and forearm corruption-resources-corruption-resources-healthcare students and policy makers need to devise more sophisticated tools to measure corruption. Bioethicists also need to get their act together by analysing the problem of corruption and (more importantly) using their expertise to advocate for change.

When faced with overwhelming odds it is tempting to give up and claim that we are too few and they are too many. But this is simply not good enough especially given that a bit of toil, sweat and (not a few) tears really can help to stop the rot.

 

Written by Carwyn Hooper Senior Lecturer in Medical Ethics at St Georges, University of London

To find out more about Transparency International’s work on corruption in pharmaceuticals & corruption-resources-corruption-resources-healthcare, click here

The Conversation

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Read 9710 times Last modified on Tuesday, 24 November 2015 11:47

Guest

The TI-UK blog features thought and opinion from guest writers as well as TI staff. Any opinions expressed by external contributors do not necessarily reflect the views of Transparency International UK.

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